2019 Oct;187:107767. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2019.107767. Ionizing radiation targets mitotic cells that include “active” ISCs and progenitor cells. As we previously reported, nanopillars and pores are able to sustain human pluripotent stem cells and differentiate pancreatic cells. Kawakita T, Higa K, Shimmura S, Tomita M, Tsubota K, Shimazaki J. Review Cancer Stem Cells ... of cell plasticity, the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, as well as the reverse transition (mesenchymal-to-epithelial), has been extensively related to cancer progression [19,20]. In particular, pancreatic cancer stem cells (PCSCs) are functionally important during tumor relapse and therapy resistance. White arrows indicate the movement of cells after commitment. Additionally, deregulation of these pathways can lead to human disorders including cancer. Characterization of extracellular matrix components in the limbal epithelial stem cell compartment. See this image and copyright information in PMC. Epithelial stem cells are specified during development and are controlled by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Evidence includes results that support the presence of corneal epithelial stem cells at the limbus, as well as the major obstacles to isolating them as pure cell populations. These studies describe a genetic hierarchy responsible for cell fate commitment in normal gut physiology. In stem cell: Epithelial stem cells The epidermis of the skin contains layers of cells called keratinocytes. The IFE and its appendages interact with the dermis, which is rich with connective tissue and a multitude of cells that confer structure and function to the epithelial cells (Fig. 83:- (Volume publication date February 2021) Review in Advance first posted online on October 19, 2020. Would you like email updates of new search results? We review literature that collectively suggests that BCs of human airways, like those in the mouse trachea, are a population of long-lived, multipotent classical stem cells. In this model, the basement membrane (BM) modulates the self-renewal and proliferative abilities of stem cells and their progeny based on the its composition and structure. eCollection 2019. Currently, human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) derived from the amnion exhibit considerable advantages over other stem cells and have drawn much attention from researchers. Metastasis is the major cause of cancer-related deaths; therefore, the prevention and treatment of metastasis are fundamental to improving clinical outcomes. STEM CELLS is read and written by clinical and basic scientists whose expertise encompasses the rapidly expanding fields of stem and progenitor cell biology. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cell fusion between mesenchymal stem cells and the gastric epithelial cells in tumorigenesis. Federico Castro-Muñozledo. In this review, we provide an update on our understanding of these epithelia and their stem cells systems, including embryology, new markers, and controversy around the location of these stem cells. Most epithelial tissues self-renew throughout adult life due to the presence of multipotent stem cells and/or unipotent progenitor cells. The surface of the cornea is composed of an epithelium which is renewed by stem cells located at the periphery of the cornea, a region known as the limbus. Organoids, a novel in vitro 3D cell culture technique, derived from stem cells, could provide a bridge between the current preclinical platforms. 1980;8:837–44. Understanding epithelial stem cell biology has major clinical implications for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of human diseases, as well as for regenerative medicine. Epithelial stem cells: the eye provides a vision. Only the basal layer, next to the dermis, contains cells that divide. Eye (Lond). National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. EMT ultimately leads to the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype, characterized by increased cell motility and resistance to genotoxic agents. 2008 May;44(5):469-72. Yueyin Pan 1,2 and Xudong Huang 2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.014. During an inflammatory response, inflammation-induced transcription factors facilitate chromatin remodeling resulting in increased chromatin accessibility. 4.1). HHS Exp Eye Res. Cells cultured from the bulge also have a higher clonogenic potential than interfollicular cells ( 17 ). Most epithelial tissues self-renew throughout adult life due to the presence of multipotent stem cells and/or unipotent progenitor cells. Ramalho-Santos M, Willenbring H. On the origin of the term “stem cell”. This finding suggested that the thymic medulla is maintained autonomously by its own stem cells. Federico Castro-Muñozledo. ReviewEpithelial Stem Cells: Turning over New Leaves. Epithelial Stem Cells: Turning over New Leaves Most epithelial tissues self-renew throughout adult life due to the presence of multipotent stem cells and/or unipotent progenitor cells. Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells---A Review . By studying regenerative response in large cutaneous wounds, our laboratory uncovered that epithelial cells in the center of the wound can acquire greater morphogenetic plasticity and, together with the underlying wound dermis, can engage in an embryonic-like process of hair follicle neogenesis. The discovery of cancer stem cells and tumor heterogeneity prompted the exploration of additional mechanisms aside from genetic mutations for carcinogenesis and cancer progression. In this review, we have discussed the studies on ovarian cancer stem cells along with the molecular pathways that could be involved in these cancer stem cells. distinct epithelial stem cell (SC) populations that self-renew and generate cells with unipotent and multipotent differentiation potential (Lee & Tumbar, 2012; Sennett & Rendl, 2012). By contrast, there is mounting evidence that organs and tissues such as the liver and pancreatic islets, which turn over more slowly, use alternative strategies, including the self-renewal of differentiated cells. Yueyin Pan1,2 and Xudong Huang2. In the past few years, intensive research has focused on corneal stem cells as an unlimited source for cell-based therapy in regenerative ophthalmology. Representation of corneal epithelial cell renewal dependent on proliferative symmetric mitosis of stem cells and their progeny. 1963;197:452–4. Our current knowledge of the stem cell population in murine epidermis and small intestinal crypts is reviewed. 2007 Dec;85(6):845-60. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2007.08.020. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. We present an overview of the PUBMED literature in the field as well as recent work from our laboratories. In some instances, this can be quite precise and allows the characteristics of stem cells to be studied. Epithelial stem cells retain a memory of inflammation. 114, 3865-3872). One of the daughter cells remains at the epithelial basal cell layer maintaining its proliferative abilities, and the other leaves the basal layer and enters the suprabasal compartment, becoming bigger, losing proliferative abilities, and becoming terminally differentiated (pink cells). The extracellular matrix composition and structure…, NLM Review: Corneal epithelial stem cells, their niche and wound healing. A: stochastic model shows that every cell has the potential to be the tumor initiator; B: CSC model shows that CSCs originate from normal stem cells (NSCs) through mutations and tumorigenic transformation of several potential pathways including Hh: hedgehog, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and the reverse process mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). Part of this review describes the variation in the basement membrane composition between the limbus and the central cornea, to show the importance of the corneal stem cell niche, its structure, and the participation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components in regulating corneal stem cell compartment. Cell Stem Cell. USA.gov. ALTERNATIVE STEM CELL SOURCESCultured oral mucosal epithelial stem cells have already been used for the treatment of LESC deficiency in patients, a procedure called COMET (cultivated oral mucosal epithelial transplantation). We identified stem cells specified for mTEC‐lineage that are generated in the thymic ontogeny and may sustain mTEC regeneration and lifelong central T‐cell self‐tolerance.  |  Human cell lines and ascites cells showed variable expression of the epithelial cell marker epithelial-specific antigen/EpCAM(epithelial specific antigen) and CD24. Dermal papilla (DP) cells are recognized as the key inductive mesenchymal player, but the ideal source of receptive keratinocytes for human HF regeneration is yet to be defined.  |  Characterization and understanding of the factors that regulate corneal epithelial stem cells should open up new paths for developing new therapies and strategies for accelerating and improving corneal wound healing. Epithelial Stem and Progenitor Cells in Lung Repair and Regeneration Annual Review of Physiology Vol. The current knowledge of stem cell biology in the corneal epithelium, clinical consequences of stem cell deficiency, and therapeutic strategies aimed at reversing stem cell deficiency will be discussed. Limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) are a population of stem cells responsible for maintenance and repair of the corneal surface. Epithelial cells line various surfaces of the body, including the skin, blood vessels, organs, and urinary tract. Representation of corneal epithelial cell…, Representation of corneal epithelial cell renewal dependent on proliferative symmetric mitosis of stem…, Schematic representation of the limbal epithelial crypt. Various nanopatterning techniques have been developed to improve cell proliferation and differentiation efficiency. Other articles where Epithelial stem cell is discussed: stem cell: Epithelial stem cells: The epidermis of the skin contains layers of cells called keratinocytes. Burn wound healing involves a series of complex processes which are subject to intensive investigations to improve the outcomes, in particular, the healing time and the quality of the scar. An asymmetric dividing stem cell would give rise to another stem cell and a transient amplifying basal cell that would migrate to the peripheral cornea when division occurs in the horizontal axis. Blue arrows=stratification of terminally differentiating cells. 2019 Apr 12;7:53. doi: 10.3389/fcell.2019.00053. 2009 Jan;75(1):54-66. doi: 10.1002/cyto.a.20671. Exp Eye Res. Stem cells of the adult cornea: from cytometric markers to therapeutic applications. Stem Cell Awareness Day Virtual Issue; Jobs; Regenerative Medicine. Based on these findings, we propose a model in which the prostatic epithelial stem cells, which are maintained in a dormant state in the proximal region of prostatic ducts, give rise to the proliferating transit-amplifying cells that migrate distally to either maintain the normal prostate gland or repopulate the gland during androgen-induced regeneration. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. The mammalian intestine is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells that is renewed every 4–5 days. We provide evidence that they are important in the initiation and progression of airway disease, and a potential point of intervention for future therapies. Molecular markers for corneal epithelial cells in larval vs. adult Xenopus frogs. 2019 Jul;184:107-125. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2019.04.010. Depending on the position of cells at the limbal epithelial crypt, the orientation of the mitotic axis during asymmetric cell division of limbal stem cells could be either vertical or horizontal. Differentiation leads to the expression of the terminal phenotype. Epithelia in adult mammals exhibit remarkable regenerative capacities owing to the presence of adult stem cells, which self‐renew and differentiate to replace cells lost to normal turnover or injury. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! epithelial sheet with normal structure and function. Review: Corneal epithelial stem cells, their niche and wound healing Federico Castro-Muñozledo From the Department of Cell Biology, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, México City, México Stem cells emerged as a concept during the second half of 19 th century, first as a theoretical entity, but then became one of the most promising research fields in cell biology. View full-text Article Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains the most lethal gynecological cancer in developed countries, indicating the need for further research. This high cell turnover makes it a very attractive and comprehensive adult organ system for the study of cell proliferation and differentiation. TISSUE-SPECIFIC STEM CELLS Concise Review: Limbal Epithelial Stem Cells: Role of the Niche Microenvironment PAULA ORDONEZ,NICK DI GIROLAMO Inflammation and Infection Research Centre, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors.  |  Hair follicle (HF) development and growth are dependent on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMIs). Injury and disease can result in a deficiency of these stem cells, the vision affecting condition called limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) in which the cornea becomes opaque, vascularized, and inflamed. 11-18 The vocabual ry descrbi ing the dfiferent progentior ces ill s complex in the field of epithelial progenitor cell biology. Stem cells emerged as a concept during the second half of 19(th) century, first as a theoretical entity, but then became one of the most promising research fields in cell biology. The second hypothesis supports the concept that any tubular epithelial cell can adapt a transient regenerative phenotype as a common reaction to injury [termed here: scattered tubular cell (STC) phenotype]. -, McCulloch EA, Till JE. α2β1hi/CD133+ cells exhibit two important attributes of epithelial stem cells: they possess a high in vitro proliferative potential and can reconstitute prostatic-like acini in immunocompromised male nude mice. This information may provide potential therapeutic strategies to prevent EMT and trigger CSC growth inhibition and cell death. Epithelial stem cells are specified during development and are controlled by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. The extracellular matrix composition and structure may regulate limbal stem cell fate providing information about their position. Exp Hematol. We also discuss genetic studies that have helped to elucidate those signals important for progenitor cells to differentiate into one of the specialized intestinal epithelial cell types. The Expression and Possible Functions of Tenascin-W During Development and Disease. 2020 Jul 20;2020:8813447. doi: 10.1155/2020/8813447. A Review of the Emerging Role of Silk for the Treatment of the Eye. -, Barak Y, Karov Y, Levin S, Soroker N, Barash A, Lancet M, Nir E. Granulocyte-macrophage colonies in cultures of human fetal liver cells: morphologic and ultrastructural analysis of proliferation and differentiation. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Results . The versatility of epithelial stem cells. Cellular topography within the highly polarized surface epithelia can be used to identify the location of the stem cells. In this case, basal cells that initiate the expression of the terminal phenotype divide with a vertically oriented mitotic spindle. In this review, we explore the regenerative capacity and mechanisms of various populations of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in response to ionizing radiation. They vary in methods of epithelial isolation from limbal biopsy, the use and preparation of AM as the substrate, the expansion medium, the use of airlifting to promote epithelial stratification, and the use of additional feeder layers such as mitomycin C-arrested murine 3T3 fibroblasts, mesenchymal stem cells, or human stromal cells (reviewed in (Tseng et al., 2010)). REVIEW Open Access Lung epithelial stem cells and their niches: Fgf10 takes center stage Thomas Volckaert1,2,3 and Stijn De Langhe1,4* Abstract Throughout life adult animals crucially depend on stem cell populations to maintain and repair their tissues to ensure life-long organ function. A well-characterized function of p63 is its maintenance of epithelial stem cell proliferation49–51 (Figure 1B). Schlötzer-Schrehardt U, Dietrich T, Saito K, Sorokin L, Sasaki T, Paulsson M, Kruse FE. Only the basal layer, next to the dermis, contains cells that divide. Radiat Res. Conversely, the stem cell could originate another stem cell and a limbal suprabasal differentiated cell when division takes place following the vertical axis; in this case, loss of contact between one of the daughter cells and the basement membrane would determine the initiation of the differentiation process. In this review, we focus on the regionally distinct lung epithelial cell types that contribute to repair after injury, and we address current controversies regarding whether elite stem cells or frequent facultative progenitors are the predominant participants. Understanding cornea homeostasis and wound healing using a novel model of stem cell deficiency in Xenopus. In this review, we will focus on four well-characterized epithelial stem cells whose tissues pos-sess diverse architectural designs and physiology: intestine, epidermis, mammary gland, and cornea. The epithelial part of the mammary gland comprises two main cell types, the basal myoepithelial cells and the luminal cells, which can differentiate either into ductal cells or milk-producing alveolar cells (Fig. Review: Corneal epithelial stem cells, their niche and wound healing. Keywords. 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